First-in-Class Plant Virus Treatment Candidate that Engages Multiple Immune Stimulation Pathways
Our core technology is derived from a plant virus, cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV). CPMV does not replicate in mammals but is recognized as foreign, activating innate and adaptive immunity through the engagement of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) present on the surface and the interior of innate immune cells. CPMV has demonstrated broad immune activation with durable and systemic antitumor effects in multiple preclinical oncology studies. The potency of CPMV can be explained by multi-factoral immuno-stimulation: prolonged tissue residence and enhanced immune cell uptake of the nanoparticles, signaling through multiple pathways including pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), multivalent assembly leading to avidity effects, and presence of T helper epitopes leading to potent and multipronged stimulation of the immune system.
CPMV has also demonstrated potential as an adjuvant and epitope display platform in preclinical viral and oncology vaccine studies by chemically linking antigens to the nanoparticle. Data to date show promising results in multiple studies including vaccines targeting SARS-CoV-2 and HPV as well as HER2+ and NY-ESO-1+ tumors. Further, Mosaic recently licensed rights to polymer-based transdermal implant and topical micro-needle patch administration delivery devices that incorporate the vaccine candidates. The technology was utilized in our vaccine studies and together form the basis of our Modular Vaccine Platform (MVP).
Technology is based on innate immune system activation
Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) on exterior of CPMV nanoparticle capsid and interior RNA of the virus:
Recognized by Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs), resulting in
Increased IL-12, MIP1, CXCL10, IFNγ
Stimulation of immune response
Recruitment of inflammatory cells
Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs)
that recognize foreign pathogens include
Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs)
Retinoic acid-inducible genes- (“RIG-1”)
Nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (“NLRs”)