Recent Articles

Key Publications


Boone C.E., Wang L., Gautam A., Newton I.G., and Steinmetz N.F. (2021) Combining nanomedicine and immune checkpoint therapy for cancer immunotherapy Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Nanomed. Nanobiotechnol​., 2021 Jul 22;e1739.

Mao C., Beiss V., Fields J., Steinmetz N.F., Fiering S. (2021) Cowpea mosaic virus stimulates antitumor immunity through recognition by multiple MYD88-dependent toll-like receptors. Biomaterials​, 2021 May 25;275:120914.

Ranked in Biomaterials Science Most Popular 30 Articles in 2020:

Shukla S., Wang C., Beiss V., Cai H., Washington T., Murray A., Gong X., Zhao Z., Masarapu H., Zlotnik A., Fiering S., and Steinmetz N.F. (2020) The unique potency of Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) in situ cancer vaccine. Biomater. Sci., 2020, 8, 5489-5503.

Shukla S., Wang C., Beiss V., Steinmetz N.F. (2020) Antibody Response against Cowpea Mosaic Viral Nanoparticles Improves In Situ Vaccine Efficacy in Ovarian Cancer. ACS Nano. 2020 March 24; 14(3): 2994–3003.
Duval K.E.A., Wagner R.J., Beiss V., Fiering S.N., Steinmetz N.F., Hoopes P.J. (2020) Cowpea Mosaic Virus Nanoparticle Enhancement of Hypofractionated Radiation in a B16 Murine Melanoma Model. Frontiers in Oncology 10:594614.
Murray A., Sheen M., Veliz F., Fiering S., Steinmetz N.F. (2020) In Situ Vaccination of Tumors Using Plant Viral Nanoparticles. Methods Mol Biol. 2019 ; 2000: 111–124.  
Chung Y.H., Cai H., Steinmetz N.F., (2020) Viral nanoparticles for drug delivery, imaging, immunotherapy, and theranostic applications. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 156 (2020) 214–235
Albakri M., Veliz F.A., Fiering S.N., Steinmetz N.F., Sieg S.F. (2020) Endosomal toll-like receptors play a key role in activation of primary human monocytes by cowpea mosaic virus. Immunology. 2020 Feb; 159(2): 183–192.
Wang C., Steinmetz N.F. (2019) CD47 Blockade and Cowpea Mosaic Virus Nanoparticle In Situ Vaccination Triggers Phagocytosis and Tumor Killing. Advanced Healthcare Materials 2019 Apr; 8(8): e1801288.
Wang C., Beiss V., Steinmetz N.F. (2019) Cowpea Mosaic Virus Nanoparticles and Empty Virus-Like Particles Show Distinct but Overlapping Immunostimulatory Properties. Journal of Virology 2019 Nov 1; 93(21): e00129-19.

Wang C., Fiering S., Steinmetz N.F. (2019) Cowpea Mosaic Virus Promotes Anti-Tumor Activity and Immune Memory in a Mouse Ovarian Tumor Model. Advanced Therapeutics. 1900003.

Cai H., Shukla S., Wang C., Masarapu H., Steinmetz N.F., (2019) Heterologous Prime-Boost Enhances the Antitumor Immune Response Elicited by Plant-Virus-Based Cancer Vaccine. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2019 April 24; 141(16): 6509–651
Fogle A.K., Steinmetz N.F., et al (2019) Plant Virus-Like Particle In Situ Vaccine for Intracranial Glioma Immunotherapy. Cancers 2019, 11, 515
Murray A.A., Wang C., Fiering, S., Steimetz N.F., (2018) In Situ Vaccination with Cowpea vs Tobacco Mosaic Virus against Melanoma. Mol Pharm​ 2018 Sep 4;15(9):3700-3716.
Lee K.L., Steimetz N.F. et al (2017) Combination of Plant Virus Nanoparticle-Based in Situ Vaccination with Chemotherapy Potentiates Antitumor Response. Nano Lett. 2017 Jul 12; 17(7): 4019–4028.
Shukla S., Steinmetz N.F., (2016) Emerging nanotechnologies for cancer immunotherapy. Experimental Biology and Medicine 2016; 241: 1116–1126.

Immuno-Oncology - Veterinary


Stump C.T., Steinmetz N.F., Fiering S.N. (2021) Remission-Stage Ovarian Cancer Cell Vaccine with Cowpea Mosaic Virus Adjuvant Prevents Tumor Growth. Cancers (Basel). 2021 Feb; 13(4): 627.

Lee P.W., Shukla S., Wallat J.D., Danda C., Steinmetz N.F., Maia J., Pokorski J.K. (2017) Biodegradable Viral Nanoparticle/Polymer Implants Prepared via Melt-Processing. ACS Nano, 11,8777-8789.


Mosaic’s IO and VAX technology has been developed over the past ten years by the Principal Investigators and Co-Founders of Mosaic: Drs. Steinmetz, Pokorski, and Fiering. The technology development has been supported through numerous federal research grants, including NIH, NSF, and CDMRP as well as private foundations, such as the American Cancer Society, Susan G Komen, and American Heart Association totaling $21 Million.